It happened again the other day. I was walking down the street in my home city in the US when I heard it; a couple speaking Italian. I hurried to catch up with them, staying close so I could eavesdrop. From what I could understand, they were talking about remodelling their house. Not the most elegant topic. But the words sounded so beautiful that I cried.
I had the same reaction when I moved home after spending two years in Florence, when I wept at the lack of attention to beauty in my own American city. Italians are always using the word bello (beautiful) for everything good. In Italy, beauty is paramount. And Italian is no different.
This passionate tongue can seduce people so thoroughly they’ll even change their lives for it. Some move to Italy on a whim and remodel abandoned farmhouses. Others sit in classrooms, trying earnestly to pronounce its odder-sounding words (like tongue-bending uomini, the word for ‘men’). Others endeavour to stay awake through hours-long operas. And that’s no accident. Italian, as we know it today, was meant to enchant, charm and beguile. It’s because this language was created by poets – artists who left their mark on the country by shaping its signature sound.
Italian has a unique history born of geopolitics. Compared to its Western European counterparts, like France and Spain, the country was unified relatively late, in 1861. Up until the 1950s, when televisions became more common, 80% of people spoke a dialect as their first language, according to Michael Moore Francis, an interpreter and the permanent mission of Italy to the United Nations.
In Italy, beauty is paramount, and Italian is no different
“Spain, France and Germany had unification earlier, and so theirs were the languages of government and administration… Italian, on the other hand, was very oriented toward the literary,” he said.
For hundreds of years, what is now Italy was divided into regional kingdoms and lacked a cohesive government with an official, administrative tongue. As a result, Italian was fashioned by the people who needed it to express themselves creatively. Writers and poets shaped its style and vocabulary over centuries, with beauty and sound as some of their primary considerations. But each region had its own dialect: Piedmontese, Romanesco, Napoletano, Siciliano, Lombardo, to name a few. But ultimately, it was Tuscan that prevailed.
bo was very into sound and having the examples of the language based on the work of poets [like Petrarch]. He talked a lot about the qualities of composition, and about finding the perfect balance between the ‘light’ and ‘heavy’ sounds,” Francis said. Bembo’s work was used to shape the language spoken across Italy today.
I speak Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men and German to my horse
Some linguists have suggested that Italian and other romance languages, like Spanish and French, appeal to English speakers because they recognise tones and sounds they’re used to. But Dr Patti Adank, who teaches speech, hearing and phonetic sciences at University College London, says that Italian is attractive to the ear because of its so-called ‘melody’. Italian benefits from a very high number of words that end in vowels, and few words with many consonants in a row, creating an open sound that makes it perfect for singing.
Or, as the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V allegedly said, “I speak Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men and German to my horse.”
Of course, as Francis admitted, Tuscany’s reputation as the epicentre of the Italian language may be nothing more than ‘propaganda’ at this point, hundreds of years later. Other cities, like Milan, have, in ways, eclipsed Florence as centres of commerce and notoriety. And like many cities that rely on tourism, much of Florence’s glory is based on the past.
But when Alessandro Manzoni, writer of the first Italian novel and pioneer of modern Italian, was almost done with his book, I promessi sposi (The Betrothed) in 1827, he said that before finishing he had to go to Florence and ‘wash’ the book’s language in the River Arno, the famous waters that cut the city in two.
Fortunately, travellers have the opportunity to hear both the Tuscan version and the many regional dialects that, particularly the south, still differ widely from traditional Italian. In fact, the further you get from Tuscany the more pronounced this becomes, with dialects around the county showing influences of a dizzying myriad of tongues, including Greek, Arabic, Spanish, French and even Hebrew.
Luckily, bello works wherever you go.
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